The production of the laboratory, whether it is a new construction, expansion, or reconstruction project, is not just about purchasing reasonable equipment, but also summarizes and considers the overall design, reasonable layout and graphic design of the laboratory, as well as power supply, water supply, and gas supply. , Ventilation, air purification, safety methods, environmental maintenance and other basic equipment and root conditions. Therefore, the production of the laboratory is a messy system engineering. In modern laboratories, advanced scientific instruments and superior laboratories are necessary conditions for advancing the level of modern science and technology and promoting the addition of scientific research results.
"People-oriented, people and the environment" has become a subject that people attach great importance to. In the "safe, environmentally friendly, useful, durable, beautiful, economical, outstanding, preemptive" design concept. The design and design are divided into six aspects: graphic design system, single structure functional design system, water supply and drainage design system, electrical control system, special gas distribution system, and harmful gas output system. The following will be explained in order according to the above six aspects.
I. Laboratory design requirements
According to the requirements of the laboratory mission, the laboratory has precious fine instruments and various chemicals, including flammable and corrosive drugs. In addition, harmful gases or vapors often occur during operation. Therefore, there are special requirements for the laboratory's house structure, environment, and indoor equipment, which should be considered when preparing a new laboratory or rebuilding an existing laboratory. Laboratory rooms are roughly divided into three categories: fine instrument laboratory, chemical analysis laboratory, auxiliary room (office, storage room, cylinder room, etc.). The laboratory is required to be kept away from dust, smoke, noise and vibration sources. Therefore, the laboratory should not be built near the main traffic road, boiler room, machine room, and production workshop (the workshop laboratory is outside). In order to maintain excellent meteorological conditions, the direction should generally be north-south.
Fine instrument room
The precision instrument room is required to have the functions of fire prevention, shock prevention, electromagnetic disturbance prevention, noise prevention, moisture resistance, corrosion prevention, dust prevention, and prevention of harmful gas intrusion. The room temperature should be kept as constant as possible. In order to adhere to the excellent use of general instruments, the temperature should be 15 ~ 30 ℃, and the conditional zui should be controlled at 18 ~ 25 ℃. Humidity is between 60% and 70%. Instrument rooms that require constant temperature can be equipped with double doors and windows and air conditioning equipment.
The terrazzo floor or anti-static floor can be used in the instrument room. It is not recommended to use carpets. Because the carpet is easy to accumulate dust, static electricity will also occur, and the power supply voltage of large fine instrument rooms should be stable, and the voltage fluctuation range is generally allowed to be ± 10%. If necessary, equip auxiliary equipment (eg, regulated power supply, etc.). To ensure uninterrupted power supply, a dual power supply can be selected. Should be designed with a dedicated ground wire, the ground electrode resistance is less than 4Ω.
Because the gas chromatography room and the atomic absorption analysis room use high-pressure cylinders, it is best to set up the nearest room where the cylinder room (direction north) can be built. The distance between the experimental table for placing the instrument and the wall is 500mm for easy operation and repair. The room has excellent ventilation. A partial exhaust hood is set above the atomic absorption instrument.
Microcomputers and microcomputer-controlled precision instruments have certain requirements for the supply voltage and frequency. To prevent voltage transients, instantaneous power outages, and lack of voltage from affecting instrument operation, an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) can be selected according to demand.
In the design of a dedicated instrument analysis room, the corresponding chemical processing room is designed nearby, which is very necessary to maintain the instrument and strengthen management.
2. Chemical analysis room
The chemical processing and analysis of samples are performed in the chemical analysis room. Some small electrical equipment and various chemical reagents are often used in the work. If they are not handled carefully, they also have certain risks. In view of these operating characteristics, the design of the chemical analysis room should be Pay attention to the following requirements:
(1) Architectural requirements: The building of the laboratory should be fire resistant or built with non-flammable materials. The distance and ceiling should also take into account the fire protection function. Optional terrazzo floor, windows should be dustproof, indoor lighting should be good, doors should be opened outwards, and large laboratories should have two exits to facilitate the evacuation of personnel in the event of an accident.
(2) Water supply and drainage: The water supply must ensure the necessary water pressure, water quality, and water volume to meet the needs of the normal operation of the equipment. The indoor general valve should be set at an obvious position that is easy to operate, and the sewer should be selected for resistance to acid and alkali corrosion. , There should be a floor drain on the ground.
(3) Ventilation equipment: Because toxic or flammable gases often occur during laboratory work, the laboratory must have excellent ventilation conditions. There are generally three types of ventilation equipment:
①Ventilation in the whole room: The exhaust fan or ventilation shaft is selected, and the number of air changes is generally 5 times / hour.
② Part of the exhaust hood: general equipment is above the location where large-scale instruments generate harmful gases. Above the harmful gas in the education laboratory, part of the exhaust hood is set to reduce the indoor air pollution.
③ Fume hood: This is a kind of partial exhaust equipment commonly used in laboratories. There are heating, water, lighting and other equipment inside. Fireproof and explosion-proof metal materials can be used to make the fume hood, and the anticorrosive coating is applied inside. The fan can be installed in the machine room on the top floor, and it should be equipped with equipment to reduce vibration and noise. The exhaust pipe should be 2m above the roof. It is better to connect one exhaust fan to one fume hood, different rooms
Sharing a fan and ventilation ducts is prone to interstitial pollution. The correct position of the fume hood in the room is placed in a place with less air movement, or a better slot type fume hood is selected. The height of the ventilated countertop is 800mm, the width is 750mm, the clear height in the cabinet is 1200-1500mm, the height of the operation port is 800mm, and the cabinet length is 1200-1800mm. The wind speed at the slit is 0.3-0.5m / s, and the open height of the window is 300-500mm. The width of the air duct behind the baffle is equal to more than twice the slit width.
(4) Gas and power supply: Conditioned laboratories can be equipped with pipeline gas. The laboratory's power supply is divided into lighting electricity and equipment electricity. For lighting, choose fluorescent lamps. In the power supply of the equipment, electrical appliances such as refrigerators that run 24 hours are powered by themselves. The remaining electrical equipment is controlled by the main switch. Electric heating equipment such as ovens and high temperature furnaces should have special sockets, switches and fuses. Install emergency lights indoors and in corridors for emergency power outages at night.
(5) Experimental bench: The experimental bench is mainly composed of a countertop, a stand under the stage, and a utensil cabinet. For convenient operation, a medicine rack can be set up on the table, and sinks can be installed at both ends of the table.
The experimental table is generally 750mm wide, and the length can be 1500-3000mm and the height can be 800-850mm according to the size of the room. The countertop is usually made of veneer physicochemical board, solid core physicochemical board, anticorrosive artificial stone or terrazzo prefabricated board. The ambition table should be flat, not easy to crack, resistant to acid, alkali and solvents, heat-resistant, and not easy to break glassware.
3. Support room
(1) Drug storage room: Because many chemical reagents are classified as flammable, explosive, toxic or corrosive, do not buy too much. The storage room is only used to store a few chemicals that will be used recently, and it must meet the safety requirements for storage of dangerous goods. It must have the functions of preventing fire, humidity, high temperature, direct sunlight, and lightning. The medicine storage room should be north, boring, and well ventilated. The ceiling should be shaded and insulated. The door should open outwards. The room temperature of flammable liquid storage room is generally not allowed to exceed 28 ° C, and explosives are not allowed to exceed 30 ° C. A small number of dangerous goods can be classified and stored in iron cabinets or cement cabinets. An exhaust cooling fan is installed in the room, and explosion-proof lighting is selected. Equipped with fire fighting equipment. The semi-basement that can meet the above conditions is a medicine storage room.
(2) Cylinder room: Flammable or combustion-supporting gas cylinders should be placed in outdoor cylinder rooms. The cylinder room should be kept away from heat sources, fire sources and combustibles warehouses. Cylinder room should use non-combustible or non-combustible data structure, explosion-proof wall on the wall, lightweight cover, door open outwards. Protect from sunlight and excellent ventilation. The cylinder is more than 10m away from the open flame heat source, and an upright iron frame is installed in the room for placing the cylinder.
The production of the laboratory, whether it is a new construction, expansion, or reconstruction project, is not just about purchasing reasonable equipment, but also summarizes and considers the overall design, reasonable layout and graphic design of the laboratory, as well as power supply, water supply, and gas supply. , Ventilation, air purification, safety methods, environmental maintenance and other basic equipment and root conditions. Therefore, the production of the laboratory is a messy system engineering. In modern laboratories, advanced scientific instruments and superior laboratories are necessary conditions for advancing the level of modern science and technology and promoting the addition of scientific research results. "People-oriented, people and the environment" has become a subject that people attach great importance to. In the "safe, environmentally friendly, useful, durable, beautiful, economical, outstanding, preemptive" design concept. The design and design are divided into six aspects: graphic design system, single structure functional design system, water supply and drainage design system, electrical control system, special gas distribution system, and harmful gas output system. The following will be explained in order according to the above six aspects.
2. Graphic Design System
In graphic design, we first consider the following aspects:
1. Disperse, evacuate, escape, smooth, unobstructed, safe passage; generally, the laboratory door is opened inward, but if there is a room with explosion danger, the door should be opened outwards. The raw material of the door should be pressure glass.
2.Ergonomics (front and back, left and right working space), the harmonious deployment of perfect equipment and the range of operating space of scientific and technological workers reflects the scientific and humanized design.
When doing graphic design, the first factor to consider is "safety". The laboratory is a place where explosions, fires, and gas leaks are prone to occur. When we are doing graphic design, we should try our best to insist on the ventilation and flow of the laboratory and the escape channel to be unblocked. According to international ergonomic standards. We make the following differences for reference: (see the figure below) The channel difference standard between the experimental station and the experimental station (the channel distance is indicated by L):
When L & gt; 500mm, one side can be operated by people;
When L & gt; 800mm, one side can be operated by people;
L & gt; 1200mm, you can sit on one side and stand on the other, the center should not pass by;
At L & gt; 1500mm, people can sit at both ends and pass at the center;
At L & gt; 1800mm, people can sit at both ends, and people can pass at the center
The sky approach and instrument table should not be too close to the wall, it is advisable to be 400mm away from the wall. In order to easily disperse when work is in danger, the aisles between the test benches should lead to the corridor. In addition, the laboratory building should be 3.7 meters to 4.0 meters high, and the net height should be 2.7 meters to 2.8 meters. The laboratory's net height with special requirements such as cleanliness, pressure gradient, constant temperature and humidity should be 2.5 meters- 2.7 meters (not including ceiling); the clear width of the laboratory corridor should be 2.5 meters to 3.0 meters. Generally, the double door width of the laboratory should be 1.1 meters to 1.5 meters (asymmetric opposite door), and the single door width should be 0.8 meters to 0.9. Rice is better.
3. Professional discipline functions: Laboratories are generally classified by physics, inorganic chemistry, organic composition chemistry, and biology. Depending on the content, use, and design of the laboratory, each has its own characteristics. For example, basic education laboratories are divided into disciplines and specialties. Most of the simpler education experiments have lower requirements for water, electricity, wind, etc. Ventilation, water supply and drainage, electrical control, and cleanliness all require high standards, but the basic principles of laboratory design are common. Taking organic chemistry as an example, the chemical root laboratory, instrument analysis laboratory, and clean experiment Room, computer room, seminar room, auxiliary laboratory, service supply room, etc.
The chemical root laboratory mainly performs experiments such as capacity analysis, ion measurement, and redox. The general design equipment is: experimental table and scrubbing table; fume hood and pipeline repair well; experimental table with reagent rack and auxiliary workbench , You need to consider the research space or computer table located in the laboratory, medicine cabinets, utensil cabinets, floor-standing instruments and equipment, first aids, etc.
The instrument analysis laboratory is mainly equipped with various large-scale fine analysis instruments. Together, it also includes general small analyzers. The general design equipment includes: instrument table, experimental table, fume hood, sky channel, computer table, cylinder cabinet, scrubbing Table, container cabinet, medicine cabinet, first aid, universal exhaust hood, atomic absorption hood, etc. The requirements of various types of instrument analysis laboratories are listed below for reference. Requirements for various types of instrument analysis laboratories:
Gas Chromatography Analysis Room: The first is the analysis of liquid organic compounds and gaseous samples that are simply converted into a gaseous state without decomposition. The main equipment is a gas chromatograph, with a computer control system and a data processing system. It has a high degree of automation and has an efficient ability to distinguish organic compounds. The carrier gases used are: H2, N2, Ar, He, CO2, etc. But for high-boiling compounds, difficult-to-transpiration and thermally unstable compounds, ionic compounds, and polymers, there is nothing that can be done. Partial ventilation is required and direct sunlight is prevented from being placed on the instrument to prevent the existence of electric and magnetic fields that affect the normal operation of the circuit system. General design: instrument table (should be off the wall for instrument repair), universal exhaust hood, computer table (generally on the instrument臵), side table, scrub station, reagent cabinet, etc.
Liquid Chromatography Analysis Room: It is mainly reflected in high-power separation. Pure compounds are prepared separately for chaotic organic compounds. Quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis. The main equipments are: high-performance liquid chromatography, suitable for high-boiling compounds and difficult to evaporate compounds. , Thermally unstable compounds, ionic compounds, polymers, etc., to make up for the lack of gas chromatography. Environmental and laboratory basic equipment design requirements are adjacent to the gas phase color chamber.
Mass spectrometry analysis room: The first is the qualitative analysis of pure organic matter, and the molecular weight, molecular formula, and molecular structure of organic compounds are determined. The analysis samples can be gas, liquid, and solid. The main equipment is mass spectrometer and gas-mass spectrometer. Mass spectrometer is an instrument that uses the principle of electromagnetics to make the ions of a substance separate and perform mass spectrometric analysis according to the mass-to-charge ratio of the basic characteristics (that is, the ratio of mass m to charge e—m / e). The difference is powerless. Gas chromatography has the characteristics of high power and easy quantitative analysis, combined with the high sensitivity of the mass spectrometer and the strong qualitative analysis. The two instruments are combined into a gas-mass spectrometer. You can make your strengths and avoid your weaknesses, and analyze the quality and power forward. The mass spectrometer may have mercury vapor escaping, and some ventilation should be considered.
Spectral analysis room: First of all, based on the physical characteristics of materials that absorb and scatter light and the physical characteristics of emitted light, set up chemical analysis in the field of analytical chemistry. The primary instruments are atomic emission spectrometer, atomic absorption spectrometer, spectrophotometer, atomic fluorescence spectrometer, fluorescence spectrophotometer, X-ray fluorometer, infrared light spectrometer, inductively coupled plasma (LCP) spectrometer, Raman spectrometer, etc. The laboratory should be as far away from the chemical laboratory as possible to prevent acid, alkali, corrosive gas and other hazards to the instrument, and away from the radiation source; the room should be protected from dust, shock and moisture. There must be a certain distance between the instrument table and the windows and walls to facilitate the debugging and maintenance of the instrument. Partial ventilation should be designed. The use of atomic absorption hoods is more appropriate.
The above laboratories can be equipped with sample processing rooms according to actual needs. Generally, they have scrubbers, experimental benches, fume hoods and other equipment, similar to chemical laboratories.
The clean laboratory first uses artificial techniques to control the dust, bacterial concentration, temperature, humidity and pressure in the indoor air to achieve the required cleanliness, temperature, humidity and air velocity. Air cleanliness refers to the degree of dust in the air in a clean air environment, and the grade of air cleanliness is distinguished by the dust concentration. Cleanliness refers to the total particles of dust particles with a particle size of ≥0.5um per liter of air. China's air cleanliness standards are divided into: 100, 1,000, 10,000, and 100,000. International standards are different: Level 1, Level 2, Level 3, Level 4, Level 5.
The clean room is generally implemented with two levels of isolation. The first level of isolation is completed by biological safety cabinets, negative pressure isolators, positive pressure protective clothing, gloves, eye masks, etc .; the second level of isolation is completed by laboratory buildings, air conditioning purification and electrical control systems. However, because the air volume required for purification air conditioning is small, for the sake of safety, the air volume is generally based on a large budget, and generally exceeds the standard rules. The category is more than a hundred levels, and the heating and cooling load is not very strict.
The situation may be budget, and now there are special purification air-conditioning units that can be used directly. Two to four levels of biosafety laboratories should implement two levels of isolation. General laboratory equipment includes: ultra-clean bench, biological safety cabinet, side or stainless steel operating table, scrubbing table, etc.
Taking the PCR laboratory as an example (PCR is the polymerase chain reaction), it is a routine method for molecular biology research and experiment, and it is also a widely used experimental technology in biology, clinical medicine and other fields. It is characterized by the large amount of DNA that can be added substantially. The laboratory is generally divided into four areas: reagent storage and preparation area, specimen preparation area, amplification reaction mixture production and amplification area, and amplification product analysis area (such as application Fully automatic analyzer, area can be properly annexed). Access to each area must be strictly in a single direction, and different work areas use different work clothes (such as different colors). Workers must not take out work clothes when they leave.
Reagent storage and preparation room (specimen preparation area). The main equipment of the instrument are: refrigerated centrifuge, biological safety cabinet, refrigerator, removable UV lamp, fully automatic nucleic acid protein purification instrument, special work clothes and work shoes, etc. Amplification reaction mixture preparation and amplification area are equipped with: refrigerator, high-speed centrifuge, ultra-clean bench, PCR instrument (requires negative pressure conditions), removable UV lamp, micro-sampler, nucleic acid amplification instrument, etc. The main products of the amplification product analysis area are: pipette, shaker, ultra-clean bench, capillary electrophoresis instrument, refrigerator, centrifuge, micro-sampler, removable UV lamp, etc. PCR
Computer room and seminar room. The computer is close to our day. The first consideration is air-conditioning heat dissipation and power supply voltage. Equipped with equipment is a keyboard instrument table. The research institute is mainly the place where the researchers work. The requirements for our laboratory equipment are relatively low.
Auxiliary laboratory: There are balance room, high greenhouse, pure water room, gas cylinder room, storage room, solution production room, dark room, etc. Analytical balance is an indispensable and commonly used instrument in chemical laboratories. High-precision balances have certain requirements on the environment. The first is the influence of air flow and wind speed. The balance room should be close to the chemical laboratory to facilitate use. The rooms with strong electromagnetic disturbance are adjacent. High-precision microbalances should be located on the ground floor. No scrubbing table or any pipeline should be installed in the balance room to prevent the leakage of the pipeline from affecting the maintenance and operation of the balance. High-temperature greenhouses, high-temperature furnaces and thermostats are standing equipment. They are usually placed on high-temperature workbenches, but it is advisable to place large-scale thermostats on the ground and open the high-temperature furnaces. The pure water chamber is mainly designed with experimental equipment; side table and scrubbing table. Modern laboratories often use deionized water, which has a large volume and can guarantee water quality. A floor drain is required on the ground. Cylinder room, laboratory gas In addition to non-combustible gases (nitrogen, carbon dioxide), inert gases (argon, helium, etc.), other gases have high-pressure, highly toxic, oxidative decomposition, explosion and other dangerous gases, such as flammable gases Hydrogen and carbon monoxide; highly toxic gases are fluorine and chlorine; combustion-supporting gases are oxygen, etc. These gases must not be used in laboratories. Can be piped into each laboratory. Solution making room, used for making various standard solutions and solutions with different concentrations. Under the agreed conditions, it can be composed of two rooms, one of which is provided with a sky pass. The other one is used for making reagents and storing reagents, which should generally be equipped with: fume hood, laboratory bench, reagent cabinet.
The service supply part is the place that serves the root laboratory and auxiliary laboratory, such as pressure cooker room and water and electrical auxiliary room. We only need to know a little.
4. Total number of laboratory staff;
5. Laboratory equipment layout
6. Professional design of working procedures and processes;
Part yi is graphic design. Party A's user first comes up with the functional requirements and distribution plan of Zui's roots. We give the starting plan. Because the traditional laboratory building design is based on guo's architectural standards, it is only the exterior and indoor structure, not the laboratory function. The architectural design and the functional design are disconnected.
The second part is the function of a single unit. The design of a single unit should be determined item by item, piece by piece, and layer by layer.
The third part, after full confirmation, enter the bidding process, and then the winning bidder cooperates with Party A. The decoration and purification projects will be carried out first. After the handover inspection, the laboratory infrastructure will enter a clear stage of responsibility, and assume responsibility. The basic equipment part is the product inspection standard. The inspection is different from the previous two projects, and there are significant differences that cannot be treated equally.
7. The ventilation and circulation on the ground and wall of the clean room to prevent dead corners. The four corners of the room should be as free as possible, easy to take care of, and concise.
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